Top Java Frameworks to Use in 2024

Quick Summary:

Get the most out of your Java development efforts by leveraging the top Java frameworks that aids experienced Java developers with various Java development tasks, reducing the overall costs and time of development while improving efficiency and code quality.

Java is one of the most popular programming languages with an established history. Java frameworks are the overall application skeletons or full structures that provide Professional Java Developers with all essential tools for creating various software solutions. They have a vast repository of varied packages that come with a series of pre-written codes. You can add your code to these pre-written code frameworks for solving any specific problem you face in your Java development process.

What makes Java special?

  1. It is Compiled And Interpreted
  2. It is Platform Independent
  3. It is Easily Portable
  4. It has Neutral Architectural
  5. It is an Object-Oriented Language
  6. It offers High Security
  7. Guarantees Robust Development
  8. It is Multi-Threaded and Interactive

What to consider for choosing the best Java framework?

Before we get to our list of best Java application frameworks, we should get a basic understanding of the deciding factors you should keep in mind when selecting the right Java framework for your specific requirements. Here are some of the important considerations of selecting a Java framework –

  1. How new is this Java framework?
  2. Is it open source?
  3. Do you need a full-stack Java framework or a purpose-specific Java framework?
  4. How precise is the documentation for the framework?
  5. Does it solve the purpose you need it for?

Top Java Frameworks as per Categories

Now that we have a brief understanding of what Java is and why it is so widely popular for developing all kinds of software, we should focus on collecting frameworks in Java used for various purposes. For your easier understanding, we have divided the list into relevant categories to identify a framework from a category that you need the best Java framework for.

1. Java Testing Frameworks

When working on a Java project, it is important to ensure that your Java application is put through rigorous testing to ensure it functions smoothly and is secured at all Java development stages. If you are still unsure about What is Java testing framework? A Java testing framework is a set of tools and libraries that provides a structured and organized approach to test java applications at different stages of development. Therefore, we have accumulated some of the top Java testing frameworks used by the most credible and profitable companies across the globe.

Java Testing Frameworks

1.1. JBehave

JBehave is one of the top Java frameworks for behavior-driven development. BDD can be considered a step forward from traditional test-driven development (TDD) and acceptance-test-driven design. JBehave makes these processes more intuitive and more accessible for all Java developers with varying levels of experience.

Key Features of JBehave

  • Pure Java Implementation.
  • Ability to specify and run text-based user stories.

1.2. JUnit

JUnit is a popular unit testing framework for Java. It is part of a larger family of unit testing frameworks that are collectively known as xUnit. It plays a significant role in test-driven development. JUnit is mainly used to enhance the stability of the code and increase overall productivity while reducing the time to debug a Java application.

Key Features of JUnit

  • Used for writing and running tests.
  • Provides annotation to identify test methods.
  • Allows Java developers to write codes faster.
  • Straightforward and easy to use.
  • It can be organized into test suites.
  • Provides assertion for testing expected results.

1.3. Serenity (Thucydides)

Serenity is one of the most extensively used and popular open-source Java testing frameworks. Serenity BDD framework lets developers write cleaner, structured and manageable acceptance criteria. It can be used for enhancing the functionality of JUnit as well. Use Serenity to create descriptive testing reports and map automated testing back to your requirements.

Key Features of Serenity

  • Complete and detailed reports on test results and implementation.
  • Business-readable formatted reports for all tests.
  • Rest API testing with RestAssured.
  • Rich built-in support for web testing with Selenium.

1.4. Selenide

Selenide is an open-source software-testing tool for writing expressive, concise, and stable UI tests for Java. It is one of the best Java frameworks for testing modern web apps for Ajax and timeouts straightforwardly. Developers prefer Selenide mostly for its zero learning curve. You do not need to spend much time learning this testing framework, and you can start concentrating on your business logic from the start.

Key Features of Selenide

  • Automatic handling of problems related to Ajax, timeouts, and waiting.
  • Automatic handling of browser lifecycle.
  • Automatic screenshots on test failures.
  • Ability to run tests behind a proxy.
  • Cross-site tracking in iOS.

1.5. Gauge

Gauge is an open-source and Free Automation Testing Tool framework that makes acceptance and cross-browser testing easier for Java testers and developers. Gauge is used to create readable and maintainable tests with your preferred languages from Java, Ruby, C#, Python, and JavaScript. It will add compatibility with other languages, too, with future updates.

Key Features of Gauge

  • Command-line support that makes CI-CD tools integrations easier.
  • Support for all major programming languages.
  • Support for testing of a wide variety of plugins.
  • Easier to write effective test cases in a collaborative environment.
  • Has an easy-to-use flexible syntax.

2. Java Testing Frameworks

Game development is a popular domain requiring various stages like concept generation, design-build, test, and release to create an enjoyable game with a seamless user experience. Despite Java not being a mainstream choice for game development, the question of Can I make a game in Java? is met with a resounding “Yes!” In fact, Java provides ample capabilities to build games effectively as it is the main programming language behind Android games. In addition, some web-based games work on Java in combination with Flash.

Java Game Frameworks

2.1. Pixi.js

Pixi.js is a free and open-source HTML5 Creation Engine that creates stunning digital content with the fastest and most flexible 2D WebGL renderer that provides a short, lightweight 2D library that works on all devices. It is generally used for creating rich, interactive, cross-platform apps and games without having to deal with WebGL API. However, Pixi.js comes with full WebGL support that can smoothly fall back to HTML5 if required.

Key Features of Pixi.js

  • Multiplatform support with a single codebase.
  • Advanced text rendering.
  • Sprite sheet support.
  • Multitouch interactivity.

2.2. LibGDX

LibGDX is a free, open-source Java game development framework with support for cross-platform development. It is based on OpenGL that works well on Linux, Windows, Android, iOS, MacOS, and web browsers. LibGDX provides a well-trained and robust environment for rapid prototyping and fast iterations. It is known for its detailed documentation and active support from its reliable community.

Key Features of LibGDX

  • Cross-platform support.
  • Extensive third-party ecosystem.
  • Proper and comprehensive documentation.
  • Low final file size compared to other engines.

2.3. Airtest

Airtest is an automated testing Java framework by Netbase games. It provides cross-platform APIs and uses image recognition technology for locating UI elements enabling Java game developers to automate their games. Artest is fully scalable and can be run using Python API and command line. In addition, it comes with AirtestIDE, an out-of-the-box GUI tool that helps create and run tests in a user-friendly manner.

Key Features of Airtest

  • Support for automated script recording, report inspection, and one-click payback.
  • Support for UI controls by utilizing the Poco framework for Cocos2D, Android Apps, and Unity.
  • Runs on Windows and macOS.

2.4. OpenRA

OpenRA is a free, open-source real-time strategy game engine. It is used to upgrade original game titles with UI improvements and higher fidelity assets while maintaining the authenticity of the gameplay experience. OpenRA provides a common platform for reimagining and rebuilding some of the classic 2D and 2.5 RTS games. In addition, it has native support for modern operating systems like Windows10, macOS, and Linux.

Key Features of OpenRA

  • Supports online play with full support for custom and mod maps.
  • Native support for macOS, Windows, and Linux.
  • Highly configurable and data-driven.
  • Supports map scripting by utilizing Lua.
  • Entirely open-source and built entirely by volunteers.

2.5. Flame

Flame is a Flutter game modular engine that provides full-stack Java solutions for games by taking full advantage of the Flutter framework. It also simplifies the code needed to build these games. Flame supports easy-to-use integrations with famous third-party tools like Google Play Games, Gamepad support, Riverapp, and more.

Key Features of Flame

  • Flame graph interpretation.
  • Just-in-time compiler.
  • System-wide flame graphs.
  • By process flame graphs.

3.Java Security Frameworks

The biggest concern when developing any application is the security aspect. Different code or applications running over the network are often vulnerable to risks and threaten security, privacy, and integrity. While considering these factors, it is natural to wonder Can Java be used for security? The answer remains positive; yes, Java can indeed be used effectively for security tasks. It is well-known for its robust security features and is widely used for developing secure applications and systems. There are many credible and proven Java security frameworks that ensure the app is secure and robust. Here are some of the top Java frameworks for security –

Java Security Framework

3.1. JAAS

Java Authentication and Authorization Services (JAAS) is a security API that has java packages designed specifically for user authorization and authentication. One of the biggest advantages of JAAS is that its authentication is carried out in a pluggable manner, which allows the app to remain technology independent from the underlying authentication.

Key Features of JAAS

  • Includes many APIs, tools, and implementations of commonly used security mechanisms, algorithms, and protocols.
  • Java security APIs cover areas like cryptography, secure communication, authentication, access control, and more.
  • Provides the developer with a comprehensive security framework for writing applications.

3.2. Spring Security

Spring Security is a Java framework with various security features like authorization and authentication for creating secure Java enterprise software and applications. It is a sub-project of the popular Java framework – Spring framework. Spring provides a wide range of authentication models that enables developers to integrate it with any software solution.

Key Features of Spring Security

  • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol – LDAP
  • JAAS LoginModule
  • Basic Access Authentication
  • Digest Access Authentication
  • Web Form Authentication
  • HTTP Authentication
  • Software Localization

3.3. HDIV (HTTP Data Integrity Validator)

HDIV is one of the top Java Web Application Security frameworks. It extends the web app’s behavior by adding important security functionalities and maintaining the API and framework specifications. HDIV can be developed in Struts 1.x, Struts 2.x, JSTL, and Spring MVC in a transparent manner that would help Java developers to develop the app without adding any unnecessary complications. HDIV can also be used in applications that don’t use Struts 1.x, Struts 2.x, JSTL, and Spring MVC.

Key Features of HDIV

  • Editable data validation.
  • Anti-cross site request forgery token.
  • Detailed attack logging.
  • Data confidentiality.

3.4. Apache Shiro

Apache Shiro is one of the most versatile Java security frameworks. Developers prefer using Apache Shiro as it is a highly customizable and modular framework that provides full-stack security solutions like authorization, authentication, cryptography, and session management.

Key Features of Apache Shiro

  • Easiest to understand Java Security API.
  • Support for authentication across pluggable data sources like LDAP, JDBC, ActiveDirectory
  • First-class caching support for enhanced application performance.
  • Simple single sign-on support.
  • Robust yet low-configuration web framework.
  • Low number of required dependencies.

3.5. OACC

OACC is one of the most popular Java frameworks for solving security problems, enabling authentication and annotations. It is an open-source security framework that follows a comprehensive security model different from most Java security frameworks. In addition, it is designed for object-level access control.

Key Features of OACC

  • Pluggable authentication protocols
  • Identity delegation
  • Fully implemented API
  • Flexible security model
  • Permission delegation
  • Identity delegation
  • Efficient query methods

4. Deep Learning Java Frameworks

Concepts of AI like machine learning, deep learning, and natural language processing helps companies vastly to improvise their business activities, provide better customer services and automate their business processes. But as there are various options available for Deep Learning it can be tedious task to select the best one and can also raise question such as Can we use Java for deep learning? Absolutely! Consequently, there is an increased demand for credible and reliable AIML Java Developer Tools to leverage for providing a seamless cognitive solution for such requirements.

Deep Learning Java Frameworks

4.1. Apache Spark MLlib

Apache Spark is one of the most popular Java framework platforms for large-scale data processing built on top of Hadoop. Spark has a specific module named MLlib, a scalable, robust, and flexible machine learning library. It is written in Scala that allows developers to use it with Python, R, Scala, and Java. The various supported algorithms include classification, regression, clustering, collaborative filtering, optimization, and more.

Key Features of Apache Spark MLlib

  • Split each document’s text into words.
  • Collaborative Filtering.
  • Realtime stream processing.
  • Ease of use.

4.2. Deep Learning for Java

Alternatively, Deeplearning4j and DL4J are one of the favorite java frameworks for many java developers. It is the first commercial-grade, open-source, distributed deep-learning library written with Java. DL4J is also compatible with other JVM languages like Kotlin, Scala, and Clojure. It aims to solve business requirements through deep neural networks and combined deep reinforcement learning rather than relying on research.

Key Features of Deep Learning for Java

  • Support for various neural networks like – feedforward neural networks, convolutional neural nets, deep belief networks, and more.
  • Pattern recognition and goal-oriented ML.
  • Ability to understand the sentiment in speech, sound, and text.
  • Detect anomalies in time series data like financial transactions, spam, or e-commerce fraud.

4.3. Java-ML

Java-ML is an open-source Java framework/API built for programmers, scientists, and software engineers. It has a vast collection of machine learning and data mining algorithms, data processing algorithms, classification, clustering, and selection. In addition, it is comparatively a straightforward clustering algorithm that enables developers to easily implement any new algorithm.

Key Features of Java-ML

  • Collection of machine learning algorithms.
  • Well-documented source code.
  • Data Manipulation.
  • Classification and Feature Selection.

4.4. ELKI

ELKI is Environment for Developing KDD Applications Supported by Index-Structures. It is essentially a data-mining framework developed in Java. It focuses on working with data in relational databases for tasks such as classification and outlier detection. It provides the developers with Java API and a mini command-line interface.

Key Features of ELKI

  • Minimalistic graphical interface for interactive parameterization of ELKI algorithms.
  • Data mining algorithms such as outlier detection ensembles and k-mean variations.
  • Open-source data mining software.
  • Data mining and data management work as separate tasks.

4.5. JSAT

JSAT is short for Java Statistical Analysis Tool. It is one of the best Java frameworks as it provides a collection of machine learning algorithms. JSAT is pure Java and has zero external dependencies. Furthermore, most parts of it support parallel execution. As a result, it is comparatively faster than other frameworks for solving small to medium-size problems.

Key Features of JSAT

  • Self-contained code for self-education.
  • Object-oriented framework.
  • No external dependencies.


MALLET (Multi Agent-Logic Language for Encoding Teamwork) is a Java-based package for statistical natural language processing document classification, topic modeling, clustering, information extraction, and other machine-learning application development. It includes sophisticated tools for document classification that helps Experienced AI/ML Developers to build futuristic AI/ML solutions.

Key Features of MALLET

  • Has a highly active ecosystem.
  • Supports sequence tagging.
  • Routines for transforming text documents into numerical representations.
  • Optimize numerical representations.

4.7. RapidMiner

Rapidminer is a top Java framework that provides users with a suite of products for data analysis, improving data mining processes, setting up a predictive analysis, and more. The various tools you get with RapidMiner include – RapidMiner Studio RapidMiner Studio, RapidMiner Steams, and RapidMiner Radoop.

Key Features of Rapid Miner

  • Includes many machine learning libraries and algorithms.
  • Easy to construct a machine learning workflow.
  • Includes loading data, feature selection and cleaning, applying learning models, and visualization.

5. Java Backend Frameworks

Java is often used for backend development, as applications developed with Java are highly scalable, robust, and cost-efficient. In addition, there are many popular Java frameworks for handling server-side development and various tasks needed to ensure your java software functions efficiently.

5.1. Spring

Spring is one of the most popular Java backend frameworks that provides a comprehensive programming and configuration model for modern Java-based applications on any deployment platform. It provides infrastructural support at the application level. It handles all the plumbing aspects of app development so development teams can better focus on creating relevant business logic independent of deployment environments.

Key Features of Spring

  • Lightweight with respect to size and functionality.
  • IoC (Conversion of Control) container.
  • Support for aspect-oriented programming.
  • Transaction management framework.
  • Data access framework.
  • Spring MVC framework.

5.2. Hibernate

Hibernate is a high-performance object/relational persistence and query service. It is used for mapping from Java classes to database tables and also data query and retrieval facilities. It takes care of most implementations like establishing a connection with the database, writing a query to perform CRUD operations, and more, thereby acting as an abstraction layer. In addition, it is a framework used to develop persistence logic.

Key Features of Hibernate

  • Open-source and lightweight.
  • Automatic table creation.
  • Simplifies complex join.
  • Fast performance.
  • Database independent query.

5.3. Struts

Apache Struts is the most widely used Java framework for creating large-scale Java web applications. It is a modern Java framework that utilizes the MVC architecture for enterprise-grade web app development. It is open-source and freely available. The framework is written in Java and works with various technologies like Java, JavaBeans, Servlets, XML, etc.

Key Features of Struts

  • Simple POJO-based actions.
  • Ajax support.
  • Simplified testability.
  • Easy to extend with plugins.
  • Configurable MVC components.
  • Theme and template support.

6. Java-Based Ecommerce Frameworks

Java is popularly used for building reliable, secure, and scalable e-commerce websites. Though Magento is the first java ecommerce framework that pops up in anyone’s head when talking about Java-based ecommerce frameworks, other frameworks can help simplify online retail for your business. Here is a list of top Java-based ecommerce frameworks

Java based ecommerce frameworks

6.1. Hybris

Hybris is a popular Java-based eCommerce framework for B2B businesses and omnichannel companies. It is used by popular global players like Samsung, Vodafone, Nikon, Asics, and Levi’s for Custom eCommerce Development Solutions. Hybris provides two major groups of products – commerce solutions and marketing tools. It has one of the best eCommerce software that helps its clients reach their customers efficiently every time and everywhere.

Key Features of Hybris

  • Product content management.
  • Catalog management.
  • Versatile document management.
  • Customer financial management.
  • Built-in SEO tools.
  • Multichannel commerce.
  • Sales performance management.
  • Salesforce automation.

6.2. Hippo CMMS

Hippo is another popular Java framework for developers looking for an open-source Java ecommerce solution. It focuses on real-time data and provides a multichannel experience. The main idea behind Hippo CMMS is to turn content into an efficient business differentiator by analyzing and studying what is relevant to your audience. Hence Hippo is the ideal Java CMMS framework for delivering personalized and optimized digital experiences to your customers.

Key Features of Hippo

  • Preventive maintenance.
  • Equipment maintenance.
  • Work order management.
  • Barcode Scanning.
  • Mobile CMMS applications.
  • Vendor management.
  • Inventory and parts management.

6.3 Kadro

Kadro merchant is also a fully-featured Java-based ecommerce framework designed for any stage of your ecommerce business lifecycle. It provides strategic support and important website development features like implementing an ecommerce store, SEO, hosting, and other various software improvisation tools. Kadro has many simple yet robust tools with an easy-to-understand interface. In addition, it supports multiple transaction types, advanced shopping carts, and multichannel capabilities.

Key Features of Kadro

  • Used in both B2B and B2C eCommerce websites.
  • Effective third-party integrations.
  • Fraud detection and prevention.
  • ERP, CMS, accounting, back-office software.
  • POS systems.

Key Features of Hippo CMMS

  • Channel Manager.
  • Cloud support.
  • SHA-256 hashing for passwords.
  • Enterprise forms.

6.4. Magnolia

Magnolia is a java based CMS platform. It is optimized for utilizing the Java Content Repository that specifies a hierarchal content store for both unstructured and structured content. It provides wide possibilities for content storage and management services and APIs that allow content reuse across different systems.

Key Features of Magnolia

  • Built for integrations.
  • Organized content capability.
  • Customized notifications and alerts.
  • Backup for safety.
  • Campaign and customer management.

6.5. Qalingo

Qalingo is a rising Java ecommerce platform developed to cater to both B2B and B2C businesses. It is fully optimized for providing a seamless mobile experience. In addition, it offers translation in 7 languages and offers many other localization features. Qalingo also focuses on SEO by providing in-built SEO tools like meta tags management, support for Google sitemap, canonical URLs, and permalinks.

Key Features of Qalingo

  • Localization
  • SEO
  • Cache Engine
  • Catalog
  • Shipping mode
  • Frontend and Backend
  • Batch process

7. Java Business Intelligence Frameworks

The most reliable way to measure revenue for any IT or software project is by deploying the right business intelligence software in your project. If you are programming in Java, you have a wide landscape of business intelligence frameworks to choose from. While having many choices is generally a reassuring factor, choosing the best java framework from a crowd can get difficult. Here are some of the top Java frameworks for business intelligence.

Java Business Intelligence Frameworks

7.1. Pentaho BI

Pentaho BI is based on the Java Enterprise Edition, and it runs on the JBoss web server. It is used for integrating data and data mining processes that break down complicated business analytics fields. It also is capable of workflow automation opportunities that make it a preferred tool for analysis and reporting.

Key Features of Pentaho BI

  • Data integration.
  • Business Analytics.
  • Embedded Analytics.
  • Big Data Analytics.
  • Ad Hoc Analytics.
  • Cloud Analytics.
  • Predictive Analytics.
  • Online Analytical Processing.

7.2. Splunk

Spunk is a Java software technology that uses data generated by the computer to track, scan, analyze and visualize data in real-time. It tracks and reads this stored data as indexer events and various types of log files. Using Splunk enables users to view data in various dashboard formats.

Key Features of Splunk

  • Data Ingestion.
  • Data Indexing.
  • Using Alerts.
  • Data Model.
  • Data Searching.
  • Data Alerts.

7.3. Jasper Reports Server

Jasper Report Server is one of the most widely used open-source reporting engines for Java. It is entirely written in Java. It can use any data from any data source to produce pixel-perfect and accurate documents that the user can view, print, or export in various document formats like Excel, PDF, HTML, etc. MS Word, OpenOffice, and more.

Key Features of Jasper Reports Server

  • Extensive datasource support.
  • Centralized reporting, data analytics, and dashboards.
  • Secured data access and auditing.
  • OLAP analysis.
  • Ad hoc report and dashboard development.

7.4. Karmasphere

The Karmasphere Studio is a popular Java framework in the BI sphere. For any integrated development platform to be efficient, you need robust, flexible, and functional plugins as a base. Karmasphere has a specific tool named Karmasphere Analyst tool that is designed for data mining in Hadoop. Karmasphere bundles all these tools together so users can leverage Amazon Elastic MapReduce.

Key Feature of Karmasphere

  • Hadoop clusters.
  • Multi-structured data.
  • Graphical query plan.
  • Mysql 5.x database.
  • Hql editor.
  • Multiple graph visualization options.
  • Various scheduling options.
  • GZIP, BZIP, and lZO compression types.

7.5. BIRT by Eclipse

BIRT (Business Intelligence and Reporting Tools) is an open-source technology platform backed by Eclipse. It consists of a visual report designer, runtime component for Java and Java EE environments. These tools are used to create reports, charts, and data visualizations embedded in web-based and rich client apps.

Key Features of BIRT by Eclipse

  • Runtime data source property binding.
  • Chart builder and SVG output.
  • Improved report performance and pdf fidelity.
  • Importing of style sheets.
  • CLOB/BLOB support.
  • Report XML
  • Multi-pass aggregate, sorting, and filtering.
  • Dynamic parameters/cascading parameters.

8. Java Cache Frameworks

Utilizing caching technology at strategic points in a multi-tier model can help reduce the variety of back and forth interactions. Though cache repositories use up memory and CPU resources, they still can help in improving overall performance gains by reducing the number of expensive operations. Here are some of the most used Java frameworks for caching –

Java Cache Frameworks

8.1. OSCache

OSCache is a popular high-performance J2EE cache framework that implements fast memory buffering within existing JSP pages. Apart from JSP caching, OSCache is also capable and used for data caching. It is widely popular for providing developers with customizable cache strategies. You can customize your cache data by using customized OSCache tags.

Key Features of OSCache

  • Supports read-only/write caching.
  • Basic support for clustering via JMS and JavaGroups.
  • Support for memory-based and disk-based caching.

8.2. JBoss Cache

JBoss Cache is known to be a replicated and transactional cache Java framework. It can be replicated as multiple JBoss cache instances can be distributed in the same JVM or across several JVMs, whether they exist on the same machine or different machines connected to a network. Thus, this data is replicated across the whole group.

Key Features of JBoss Cache

  • Support for Java EE and Web Services standards.
  • Buddy Replication and Cache Loading Buddy Replication
  • Cache Manager API
  • Support for both – pessimistic and optimistic looking with the tree structure of cache.

8.3. JCS – Java Caching System

JCS is a distributed caching system written in Java. Its purpose is to speed applications up by providing means to manage a variety of cached data. It is most useful for high read, low put applications. Using JCS helps drop latency time significantly and remove bottlenecks from the database effectively.

Key Features of JCS

  • Memory management.
  • Thread pool counts.
  • Minimal dependencies.
  • Data expiration.
  • Extensible framework.
  • Remote synchronization.
  • Region data separation and configuration.

8.4. EhCache

EhCache is an open-source Java distributed cache for general purpose caching, lightweight containers, and Java EE. It is one of the most popular Java frameworks for caching. It enables an application to fetch frequently used data from memory rather than retrieve it from a database or other backend systems every time it is needed. In addition, EhCache supports multiple deployment configurations.

Key Features of EhCache

  • Designed for high concurrency systems.
  • Simple API that requires no initial configuration.
  • Lightweight apps with small footprints.
  • Minimal dependencies.
  • Highly scalable.
  • Highly extensible.

9. Java CMS Frameworks

Content Management Systems (CMS) are one-stop solution platforms for managing and administering web content. They provide a comprehensive solution to build and maintain complex websites and make it easier for business owners to update and edit the website content without necessarily knowing how to code or spending valuable time writing and altering codes and scripts for the smallest of changes.

Some of the most popular CMS frameworks are PHP-based, ROR based, and Java-based. Java CMS frameworks are often popular for being open-source and having the potential to be highly scalable, with a modernized architecture. Here are some of the top promising Java frameworks for fulfilling your CMS requirements –

Java CMS Frameworks

9.1. OpenCMS

OpenCMS is one of the popular Java CMS frameworks that is based on Java and XML technology. It allows developers to build highly customizable and interactive websites/portals. OpenCMS uses a WYSIWYG(what you see is what you get) editor and a fully-featured template engine that fully complies with the W3C standards. You can deploy OpenCms in any open-source environment like Apache, Tomcat, Linux, and more. It can also be deployed on commercial environments like Windows NT, Oracle, and BEA Weblogic.

Key Features of OpenCMS

  • Advanced permission system.
  • Can run on a server cluster.
  • Easy to use.
  • Supports faceted search for your website.
  • Support for a highly dynamic list of content like news.
  • Support for multilingual content.
  • Cost-effective and value for money.

9.2. Alfresco Content Services

Alfresco is undoubtedly one of the top open-source CMS platforms for Java. It has a built-in enterprise repository and portlet capabilities with systematic document management, records management, collaboration, and other useful features. In addition, it has a modular architecture that allows end-users to effectively manage websites across various platforms like mobile, cloud, on-premise environments, and more by leveraging open-source Java technologies like Hibernate, JSF, and Spring.

Key Features of Alfresco Content Services

  • Document Management.
  • Content Management.
  • Enterprise Content Management (ECM).
  • Mobile CMS.
  • Optical Character Recognition (OCR).
  • Document Version Control.
  • Data Governance.

9.3. Asbru

Asbru is a robust, feature-packed, easy-to-use content management system for Java with database-driven capabilities. It is built on top of the Spring framework with integrated databases, community, statistics and ecommerce modules, and other promising assets that helps the developers to create, publish and manage rich, user-friendly websites with ease.

Key Features of Asbru

  • WYSIWYG content editor.
  • Multilingual content.
  • Ecommerce and website analytics.
  • Custom templates and data.
  • Password-protected content.

9.4. Walrus

Walrus is another popular Spring-based CMS with unique and efficient content management capabilities with a smart administrative interface and easy-to-use drag and drop editor. In addition, it is known for its ease of setup and undo/redo features. Governments and non-profits for building their websites generally use Walrus.

Key Features of Walrus

  • Web-based or on-premise CMS.
  • Available in a variety of editions for different-sized companies.
  • Stores all tasks, documents, and other assets in a file hierarchy structure.
  • Prebuilt themes, templates, and WYSIWYG editor.
  • Spell check in over 44 languages.
  • HTML code is editable.
  • Add-on modules for supporting ecommerce, analytics, and more.

9.5. DotCMS

DotCMS is said to be the next-gen enterprise open-source CMS solution. It is one of the best Java frameworks for easy building personalized and engaging websites, extranets, intranets, and apps. It utilizes open API, extensible and scalable architecture, and other relevant CMS tools to deliver an unparalleled website experience to your end-users.

Key Features of DotCMS

  • Vanity URLs and URLs rewriting.
  • URL maps.
  • Multilingual content.
  • Form Builder.
  • Search and Query.
  • Push Publishing.
  • Java Plugins and OSGi (Open Service Gateway Initiative).

10. Java Big Data Frameworks

Java is a highly efficient compiled language that is used for machine learning algorithms and high-performance coding. It is one of the most notable big data tools alongside R, Python, and Scala. While there are many options for big data projects, Python and Java dominate the market. Both can be used for creating full-stack apps, handling server-client, and database-side models.

Java Big Data Frameworks

10.1. Apache Spark

Apache Spark is an open-source, distributed processing system that is used for big data systems. It utilizes in-memory caching and optimized query execution for improving the speed of solving analytic queries against any data size. It provides development APIs for Java, Python, R, and Scala.

Key Features of Apache Spark

  • Rapid processing speed.
  • Ease of use.
  • Support for sophisticated analytics.
  • Realtime stream processing.
  • In-memory computation.
  • Code reusability.
  • Fault Tolerance.

10.2. Apache Hive

Apache Hive is a distributed, fault-tolerant data warehouse system that enables developers to conduct analytics at a massive scale. Data warehouses provide central storage space for information that can be easily analyzed for making informed, data-driven decisions. With Apache Hive, you can read, write and manage petabytes of data using SQL. It is built on top of Apache Hadoop, enabling it to work quickly on petabytes of data.

Key Features of Apache Hive

  • Scheduled Queries.
  • Shared Hive Metastore.
  • Scheduled Queries.
  • Low-latency analytical processing.
  • Workload management at a query level.
  • Materialized views.

10.3. Apache Flink

Apache Flink is an open-source Java framework and distributed process engine for stateful computations over bounded and unbounded data streams. It is used to process data streams on a large scale and deliver real-time analytical insights about the processed data with your streaming application.

Key Features of Flink

  • True steaming engine.
  • Custom Memory Manager.
  • Automatic cost-based optimizer.
  • Native closed-loop iteration operators.
  • Unified framework.

10.4. Apache Storm

Apache Storm is a free, open-source, distributed real-time computation system. It makes processing unbounded data streams easier by doing in real-time what Hadoop does for batch processing. Apache Storm is simple and can be used with any programming language. It is widely used with Java.

Key Features of Apache Storm

  • Real-time analytics.
  • Online machine learning.
  • Distributed RPC, ETL, and more.
  • Continuous computation.
  • Fault-tolerant.
  • Easy to set up and operate.

11. Java Dependency Injection Frameworks

Dependency Injection is a software design pattern that helps eliminate the need for hard-coded dependencies and makes it possible to change them in run-time or compile-time. Most objects in Java development require references to other objects to be useful. With dependency injection, the system can provide for those references without developers managing all those dependencies at the app level. Here are some of the top Java frameworks for integrating dependency injection in your project –

Java Dependency Injections Frameworks

11.1. Dagger

Dagger is one of the simplest, lightweight, and straightforward Java frameworks available for integrating dependency injections. It can be considered a tiny library useful for programs that need to minimize their footprint, for instance, mobile apps. Being a simple and lightweight framework, Dagger does miss some of the features that come with larger frameworks. Still, it compensates for it in terms of development speed and by ensuring a neat compile-time validation tool.

Key Features of Dagger

  • Central tree context for dependency tree.
  • Lazy injections for expensive resources.
  • Compile-time validation of bindings.
  • Quantifiers for different implementations of the same interface.

11.2. Spring DI

Spring is a popular Java framework widely used for many Java-related purposes. Dependency injection is a fundamental aspect of this framework through which Spring containers inject objects to other objects or dependencies. This allows developers to loosely couple different components and moves the responsibility of managing components onto the container.

Key Features of Spring DI

  • Testing through mock objects.
  • Loosely coupled architecture.
  • Reduced module complexity.
  • Increased module reusability.
  • Reduces or eliminates unwanted dependencies.
  • Allows concurrent/independent development.

11.3. Google Guice

Google Guice is Google’s approach to creating one of the leading Java frameworks to automate the dependency injection in apps. It is an extremely lightweight Java dependency inject framework developed and managed by Google. In addition, Guice is known for having a clean implementation of constructor injection.

Key Features of Google Guice

  • Just-in-time binding.
  • Named binding.
  • Instance binding.
  • Field Injection.
  • Method Injection.
  • Constructor injection.
  • Implicit injection.

12. Java ETL Frameworks

Java ETL (Extract, Transform, and Load) frameworks allow users to create ETL scenarios by leveraging XML-based language or Java. You can either embed the framework in the Java program or deploy it as a web app and connect it to open REST API. Java ETL frameworks periodically extract data from your source systems and transform the data in a common format, and then load the data on the targeted data store or warehouse. Here are some of the most popular Java ETL frameworks you should know about.

Java ETL Frameworks

12.1. Jaspersoft ETL

Jaspersoft ETL is one of the most flexible, powerful, and intuitive open-source Java frameworks for ETL processes. With Jaspersoft ETL, you can graphically design, schedule, and execute data movements and transformations for BI projects like loading Data Marts, Data Warehouses.

Key Features of Jaspersoft ETL

  • Business-oriented models for early collaboration.
  • Activity Monitoring Dashboard tracks job performance and execution.
  • Drag and drop process designer.
  • Native connectivity to CRM and ERP applications like Salesforce, SugarCRM, and more.
  • Connectivity to big data environment such as Hive for Hadoop.

12.2. Scriptella

Scriptella is one of the top Java frameworks for ETL. It was created to simplify the data transformation work for the programmers.  For embedding Java code in Scriptella, you would need either JavaScript bridge driver, Service Provider Interface (SPI), or Janino. Developers prefer Scriptella as it supports cross-database ETL scripts and works well with multiple data sources in a single ETL file.

Key Features of Scriptella

  • Database migration.
  • Cross-database ETL operations.
  • Automated database schema upgrade.
  • Alternative for Ant<sql> task.
  • Database creation/update scripts.

12.3. Apache Camel

Apache Camel is an open-source Java framework that is known for its rule-based routing and mediation engine. In addition, it provides an implementation of several Enterprise Integration Patterns. This makes integration easier by providing better connectivity to a diverse range of transports and APIs.

Key Features of Apache Camel

  • Support for pluggable data formats and type converters like CSV, JAXB, JSON, Zip, and more.
  • Camel supports pluggable languages like JavaScript, Python, Groovy, PHP, and others for writing predicates in DSL.
  • Supports POJO model.
  • Eases the process of testing large distributed and asynchronous systems.

12.4. Apatar

Apatar is one of the top Java-based frameworks best fitted for businesses that use CRM systems to drive their customer relationships. It moves and syncs customer data between your existing systems and other relevant third-party applications. Apatar can transform and integrate large and complex datasets. Developers can customize this ETL tool with Java source code that comes out of the box with Apatar. Non-developers can also leverage Apatar by using its user-friendly drag and drop UI.

Key Features of Apatar

  • Drag and drop UI.
  • Easy learning curve.
  • Flexible deployment options.
  • Connectivity to databases like PostgreSQL, XML, MySQL, MS Access.
  • Single interface for managing all your integration processes.

13. Java GUI Frameworks

If you need to create simple console-based apps, you probably won’t need to rely much on GUI. However, looking into the top Java Frameworks for GUI is important if you need to create advanced apps with more possibilities and potential. Java has many GUI frameworks and libraries that help developers create modern, feature-packed user interfaces. Here are some of the top Java GUI frameworks that you can leverage for your custom Java projects –

Java GUI Frameworks

13.1. AWT (Abstract Window Toolkit)

Java AWT is an API for developing Graphical User Interface or windows-based apps in Java. It is not the ideal GUI framework if you’re looking for building rich applications as its components are platform-dependent, and the overall framework is heavyweight. However, it is ideal for creating smaller GUI applications that don’t require rich user interfaces.

Key Features of AWT

  • A set of native user interface components.
  • Robust event-handling model.
  • Graphics and imaging tools like color, shape, font classes.
  • Provides various components like checkbox, button, label, and more.

13.2. SWT (Standard Widget Toolkit)

SWT is an open-source widget framework for Java for developing desktop applications. It uses native widgets of the platform wherever possible. Native widgets of the targeted OS are accessed by SWT framework via Java Native Interface (JNI) framework.

Key Features of SWT

  • Well Defined API.
  • Runs on any Swing support platform.
  • SWT apps run faster than Swing Applications.
  • Lesser Memory Usage.
  • Supports Display and Shell Classes.

13.3. JavaFX

JavaFX is a leading Java framework used for desktop apps and Rich Internet Applications (RIA). Applications built on JavaFX can run on multiple platforms like web, desktop, and mobile. JavaFX comes with its components, eliminating any dependency on the operating system. It is a lightweight Java ETL framework and is hardware accelerated. It can be used for various OS platforms like Linux, MacOS, and Windows.

Key Features of JavaFX

  • Java APIs.
  • Swing Interoperability.
  • FXML and Scene Builder.
  • Built-in UI controls and CSS.
  • Multitouch Support.
  • High-performance media engine.
  • Self-contained app deployment model.

14. Java Logging Frameworks

When working on a microservice or some other application, you get control over the execution environment. This means you will be responsible for selecting the best logging framework for your Java project as well. Here is the list of some of the most popular Java frameworks for fulfilling your logging requirements –

Java Logging Frameworks

14.1. Apache Log4j 2

Apache Log4j 2 is an upgraded version of the famous Java framework ‘Log4j’. The newer version provides considerable and impressive improvements over its predecessor. It also fixes some of the issues identified in the Logback framework.

Key Features of Apache Log4j 2

  • Support for asynchronous logging.
  • API and Implementation separation.
  • Automatic configuration reloading.
  • SLF4J adapter.
  • Plugin architecture.

14.2. Logback

Next on our list of best Java frameworks is Logback. It is a preferred logging framework for Java applications, & also a successor to the ‘log4j’ project. The same developer developed both these frameworks. Logback was rewritten to improve overall performance capabilities, including support for SLF4J natively and implementing other improvements like automatic reloading of logging configurations and advanced filtering options.

Key Features of Logback

  • Faster execution in comparison to log4j.
  • Native support for slf4j.
  • Conditional processing and defined configuration.
  • Advanced filtering capabilities.
  • HTTP-access logging.
  • Recovery from I/O failures. ‘

14.3. Logbook

Logbook is another top Java framework that enables complete request and response logging for server-side and client-side technologies. It can provide support for Apache’s HTTP client, Servlet containers, and many other frameworks. It also has auto-config for Spring Boot.

Key Features of Logbook

  • Mobile-first design.
  • Reporting and searchable databases.
  • Log Templates.
  • Audit Trails.
  • File Attachments.
  • Custom Integration.

14.4. Tinylog

Tinylog is the best logging framework for developers who want to simplify their logging experience. It is a lightweight Java logging framework that can be used with other languages, such as Scala, Kotlin, or other JVM languages. Tinylog is open-source and functions on any Java platform (Java 6 or newer) and Android(API level 1 or higher).

Key Features of Tinylog

  • Support for other popular JVM languages like Scala and Kotlin.
  • Support for Android apps by using logcat.
  • Lightweight apps.
  • Output can be set to File, Console, database using JDBC and DataSource.
  • Easy and straightforward configuration file.
  • Free and open-source.

15. Java Microservice Frameworks

Java microservices frameworks are types of software applications written in Java and leverage the vast ecosystem of Java tools and frameworks. These software applications are designed for a limited and specific solution that works with other microservices to form a more comprehensive Java solution. Here are some of the most used Java frameworks for microservices –

Java Microservices Frameworks

15.1. Micronaut

Micronaut is a new JVM framework popular for building microservices for Java, Groovy, and Kotlin. It is an efficient open-source framework used for creating cloud-native and modular applications as well as microservices. It is famous amongst developers for helping them create apps and microservices with relatively smaller memory footprints and short start-up times. One of the biggest advantages of Micronaut is that the overall memory consumption and start-up time do not get affected by the size of the app’s codebase.

Key Features of Micronaut

  • Dependency injection.
  • Inversion of control.
  • Aspect-oriented programming.
  • HTTP routing.
  • Service discovery.
  • Client-side load-balancing.

15.2. SpringBoot

SpringBoot is an open-source micro-framework maintained by a company named Pivotal. It helps Java developers create standalone applications that can run on their own without relying on any external web server by embedding a web server like Netty or Tomcat in your app. It is an enterprise-level framework that runs on the JVM. Springboot has three core capabilities – Autoconfiguration, opinionated approach to configuration, and ability to create standalone applications.

Key Features of SpringBoot

    • Web Development.
    • Admin Features.
  • Application events and listeners.
  • YAML support.
  • Type-safe configuration.

15.3. Quarkus

Quarkus is a full-stack Kubernetes-native Java framework designed for JVM and native compilation. Its purpose is to optimize Java specifically for containers and be an effective platform for cloud, serverless and Kubernetes environments. Quarkus is designed to work with some of the most popular Java frameworks and libraries to be implemented in your existing Java solutions seamlessly.

Key Features of Quarkus

  • Unified configuration.
  • Zero configuration.
  • No hassle native executable generation.
  • Streamlined code for common usage.
  • Live coding.
  • First-class support for Graal/SubstrateVM.
  • Build-time metadata processing.
  • Native image preboot.

16. Java MVC Frameworks

The Model View Controller design patterns indicate that an application consists of a data model, presentation information, and control information. This design pattern requires each of these to be separated into different objects. MVC mostly is to only do with the UI/interaction layer of any application. When selecting the best Java MVC framework that will help you create performance-driven, well-designed Java applications, you will still need a solid logic layer, some service layers, and a data access layer for your app. Here are some of the top Java frameworks for MVC design patterns.

Java MVC Frameworks

16.1. Struts

Struts is an open-source MVC Model2 architecture-based Java framework. It is based on Java technologies like JSP, XML, Servlet, JSTL, and more. This leading Java framework also provides validation framework capabilities. Strut’s ability lies in its model layer by which developers can integrate Struts with other Java technologies like EJB, Spring, JDBC, and more.

Key Features of Struts

  • Configurable MVC components.
  • POJO-based actions.
  • AJAX support.
  • Integration support.
  • Templates and theme support.
  • Tag support.

16.2. JSF (Jakarta Server Faces)

Applications built with JSF follow the model-view-controller architectural pattern. It allows Java developers to focus on the backend data encapsulation development that gets integrated with the UI. Web page creators can create the best UI for their clients by assembling the prebuilt JSF components that contain the necessary logic.

Key Features of JSF

  • Component-based framework.
  • Integration with expression language.
  • Support for HTML5.
  • Default exception handling.
  • Easy and rapid web development.
  • Implements Facelets technology.

16.3. Play!

Play Framework is an open-source web app framework that follows the MVC architectural pattern. The framework is written in Scala but is usable by many other programming languages compiled by the JVM bytecode, for instance, Java. Play! Helps Java developers improve their productivity by using convention over configuration, displaying errors in the browser, and hot code reloading.

Key Features of Play!

  • IDE support for Intellij IDEA.
  • Built-in testing tools.
  • Powerful console and build tools.
  • Real-time enabled.
  • Asset Compiler for LESS, CoffeeScript, and more.

16.4. Spring MVC

Spring MVC is one of the top Java frameworks used for building scalable, reliable, and feature-packed web applications. One of the greatest advantages of Spring MVC is that is implements all the fundamental features of a core spring framework like Dependency Injection, Inversion of Control, and more. Furthermore, SpringMVC enables developers to leverage MVC in the Spring framework with the help of DispatcherServlet. This class receives all incoming requests and sends them to the right resource such as – models, views, and controllers.

Key Features of Spring MVC

  • Clear separation of roles.
  • Adaptability, non-intrusiveness, and flexibility.
  • Reusable business code.
  • Customizable binding and validation.
  • Flexible model transfer.

16.5. Grails

Grails is a leading Java MVC framework used for developing MVC applications. In addition, it is used for developing agile web applications. Grails uses the Apache Groovy programming language, which is based on the Java platform. Therefore, it can be used for various tasks like defining a simple data model, creating the necessary controllers and views, assigning role-based authorization for the classes, and more.

Key Features of Grails

  • Spring boot foundation.
  • Seamless java integration.
  • Optimized reloading agent.
  • Plugin library.
  • Built-in testing framework.
  • Groovy lineage.

16.6 Vaadin

Vaadin is a web app development Java platform preferred by many Java developers to build reliable web apps with promising UX, speed, and scalability potential. It has inbuilt support for AJAX and JavaScript. With Vaadin, you can also add external features by leveraging Google Web Toolkit. It saves considerable time for the developers as it renders the rich content in the browser without any markup files. All markup files and supporting files are generated at runtime. Vaadin supports both server-side and client-side development.

Key Features of Vaadin

  • Entirely object-oriented.
  • Easy learning curve and integration.
  • Supports both server-side and client-side development.
  • Java API for all components.
  • Responsive Layouts
  • Built on W3C web components standard.
  • Keyboard navigation and screen reader support.

17. Java ORM Frameworks

ORM is short for Object Relational Mapping. ORM framework is written in an object-oriented language like PHP, C#, and Java. These act as code libraries that automate the transfer of data stored in relational database tables into objects more frequently used in application code. Here are some of the best Java frameworks for your ORM needs.

Java ORM Frameworks

17.1. EclipseLink

EclipseLink is an open-source Eclipse Persistence Services project by the Eclipse foundation. It is an extensible framework that allows Java developers to interact with various data services like web services, databases, Object XML mapping, and more. It can be used with Java EE, SE, and OSGi environments.

Key Features of EclipseLink

  • Common class mapping, with customization policies with event callbacks.
  • Multiple session types with event callbacks.
  • Idiomatic persistence.
  • High performance and reliability.

17.2. Hibernate

Hibernate is an open-source Java persistence framework. It is known for its robust object-relational mapping and query databases by leveraging SQL and HQL. It is also a great tool for ORM mapping requirements in Java. Hibernate is a popular Java framework among Java developers as it cut down many complications and defects from your application.

Key Features of Hibernate

  • Lightweight and open-source.
  • Object Relation Mapping.
  • High Performance.
  • Caching and auto-generation.
  • SQL and HQL support.

18. Java Android App Frameworks

Android is one of the leading mobile operating systems worldwide, powering 8 out of every 10 devices across the globe. The reason behind the craze for Android is its high customization capabilities and a larger global community forum. Android is itself built on Java, and hence naturally, if you are looking for an efficient Android app development solution, selecting from these top Java frameworks for Android will be your best bet.

Java Android App Frameworks

18.1. Kotlin

After Java, Kotlin is the only android app development framework that has helped Professional Android Developers to develop some of the most promising android applications. Kotlin is essentially based on Java, but it is a little simpler and easier to grasp than Java. It requires lesser boilerplate code. Kotlin has opened the gates for many new Android developers to get started with Android development.

Key Features of Kotlin

  • Lambda expressions.
  • Extension functions.
  • Smart casts.
  • Null-safety.
  • String templates.
  • Primary constructors.
  • First-class delegation.

Also Read : Kotlin VS Java

19. Java Serverless Frameworks

Sever less computing is trending these days and is especially well perceived by people who love managing less while getting time to create more. Though it is still a young concept, there are many Java serverless frameworks that you can utilize.

Java Serverless Frameworks

19.1. Nuclio

Nuclio is an open-source serverless platform used to automate the deployment of data-science-based apps and minimize their development costs and maintenance overhead. This platform is a high-performance framework focused on I/O, data, and compute-intensive workloads.

Key Features of Nuclio

  • Data collectors ETL, Stream Processing.
  • Data preparation and analysis.
  • Real-time model serving.
  • Feature vector assembly.
  • Support for languages like .NET, Nodejs, Python, Go, Java.

19.2. Apex Up

ApexUp is a serverless framework that focuses on the deployment of static websites and API gateways. You can build your web apps with your most preferred Java frameworks. ApexUp also supports other languages like Crystal, Python, and more.

Key Features of Apex Up

  • Multitenant environment.
  • Strongly typed.
  • Easy to use.

19.3. Apache OpenWhisk

Apache OpenWhisk is an open-source, distributed serverless framework that executes functions (fx) in response to any events at any scale. It manages the infrastructure, scaling, and server using Docker containers so that the developers can focus on building scalable, robust, client-friendly, and cost-effective applications.

Key Features of Apache OpenWhisk

  • Event-driven.
  • Enterprise-grade.
  • Integration capabilities with Python, PHP, Docker JavaScript, Java, and more.

Wrapping It Up!

These are the Top Java Frameworks for various needs and domains of development that you must know about and utilize for your unique Java development needs. Make sure to understand your project requirements, analyze the options available, and then decide on finding the best Java framework to fulfill your requirements.

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    Ronak Patel

    Ronak Patel, the CEO of Aglowid IT Solutions, is a NASSCOM member and a published writer in top tech publications like DZone and Hacker Noon. With a background as a full-stack developer, he brings a wealth of technical expertise. Ronak's marketing acumen complements his technical skills, ensuring the delivery of innovative IT solutions that excel in the market.

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