TypeScript VS JavaScript : Check the Difference in 2021

By Saurabh Barot   |   7 September, 2021
TypeScript VS JavaScript : Check the Difference in 2021

Quick summary: In the realm of programming, TypeScript (TS) and JavaScript (JS) are two well-known languages. TypeScript is essentially JavaScript with a few extra features. Both languages are used; however, TypeScript quickly becomes a favourite of many web developers and enterprises due to its added features. In this post, we’ll look at the fundamental differences between TypeScript and JavaScript, as well as the syntax, features, and some relevant memes for both languages.

Websites are now widely used by all businesses, and JavaScript is the most widely used programming language for enhancing HTML-based pages. While Javascript is the most widely used scripting language, TypeScript is gaining footing.

According to the StackOverflow Annual Developer Survey 2021, JavaScript is the most commonly used programming language for the ninth year in a row, with 64.96 percent, and TypeScript is in ninth place with 30.19 percent. The popularity of TypeScript and JavaScript can be seen in these numbers.

Stackoverflow TypeScript Vs JavaScript

In essence, TypeScript is a superscript of JavaScript, and everything of your JavaScript code is valid in TypeScript. To put it another way, TypeScript = JavaScript + greater functionality. TypeScript is a combination of JavaScript and additional capabilities. So, saving your JavaScript code (JS) in TypeScript format (TS) will work properly, but this does not imply that TypeScript and JavaScript are the same. Before we get into the fundamental distinctions between the two languages, let’s have a look at how each of them looks.

What is JavaScript

One of the most widely utilised core technologies on the internet is JavaScript. It has been an essential component of applications since the beginning, making web pages interactive and dynamic. It’s a lightweight, high-level language with dynamic typing and a just-in-time (JIT) compiler. JavaScript was only available as a client-side application for a long time, although some recent JS applications are also available on the server. Scripts are the programmes that are written in JavaScript. These scripts are embedded in HTML pages and run as soon as the page is loaded. It’s written in plain text and doesn’t need to be compiled to run.

What is TypeScript

What-is-TypeScript

TypeScript is a JavaScript programming language for the current day. It’s a statistically compiled language for writing clean and straightforward JavaScript code. It works with node.js and any other browser that supports ECMAScript3 or subsequent versions of the language. Microsoft created and maintained TypeScript under the Apache2 licence. It does not operate directly in browsers; a compiler must build and generate a JavaScript file. The TypeScript file has the extension “.ts.” Type annotations in TypeScript allow for optional static type checking at compilation time. TypeScript adheres to the OOPS principle, and we can convert TypeScript code (.ts files) to JavaScript code (.js file) using TSC (TypeScript Compiler).

JavaScript-vs-TypeScript-Pull-Request

Why Use TypeScript Vs JavaScript

Let’s take a look at why you should utilise JavaScript and TypeScript according to your requirements.

Why JavaScript

  • JavaScript is a Microsoft-sponsored open-source project.
  • Classes, interfaces, and modules are all supported.
  • JavaScript that has been compiled will run in any browser.
  • Cross-compilation is possible.
  • You can use JavaScript to develop huge apps by extending them.
  • Support for classes, interfaces, and modules has been added.
  • Specially designed tool for small scripts

Why TypeScript

  • JS libraries and API documentation are supported by TypeScript.
  • It is an optionally typed scripting language that is a superset of JavaScript.
  • JavaScript code can be transformed from TypeScript code.
  • Object-oriented programming approaches and better code structuring
  • Tool support is improved, allowing for a faster development time.
  • It can go beyond the conventional decorators, such as async/await.
  • When to use TypeScript over JavaScript

When to use JavaScript over TypeScript

Stable testing workflow

Possessing a team that is already applying test-driven development is better than swapping TypeScript even with all its features and costs.

Small Assignments

It is the perfect solution for a smaller project.

Build tools needed

To have the JavaScript, TypeScript needs to perform an extra step, So it’s better to use JavaScript without an assistant of building tools.

Framework Support

Using existing libraries and frameworks, you can develop web applications much faster and make your development process streamline as TypeScript doesn’t support specific frameworks.

When to use TypeScript over JavaScript

Massive Project or numerous developers

TypeScript is the best choice for you if you’re working on a huge project or have several developers working together. The access modifiers and interface of TypeScript can be an advantage for communicating with API.

Working with a new framework or library

Use TypeScript if you’re starting a new project that utilizes React and is not accustomed to its API.

Compile-time checking

Expanding the code is tough in JavaScript, especially when you prefer pre-compile error checking. With TypeScript, it is possible to execute runtime type conformation and compile-time validation.

TypeScript Vs JavaScript: Features

So far, we have seen when to use TypeScript and when to use JavaScript. Let’s see what features they provide.

Features of JavaScript

  • Lightweight scripting language
  • Dynamic Typing
  • Object-oriented Programming support
  • Functional Style
  • Platform Independent
  • Prototype-based
  • Interpreted Language
  • Async Processing
  • Client-side Validation
  • Control in Browser

Features-of-JavaScript

Features of TypeScript

  • Maintainability
  • Offers great  productivity to developers
  • Code Navigation & Bug prevention
  • Code refraction and discoverability
  • Optional Static type Annotation
  • ES6 Support
  • Supports interface, sub-interface, classes & subclasses
  • Rich IDE
  • Class-based object-oriented with the inheritance of private members and interface.

Features-of-TypeScript

Typescript Vs JavaScript: Syntax

Understand the basic syntax of both languages.

Basic Syntax of JavaScript

The Script tag in JavaScript contains all statements. It instructs the browser to treat all content between these tags as <script>//javascript code</script>.

Basic Syntax of TypeScript

A collection of rules for writing programmes is defined by syntax. Every language has its specification identifies its grammatical structure.

A TypeScript is a programming language consisting of

  • Modules
  • Functions
  • Variables
  • Expressions
  • Statements
  • Comments

TypeScript vs JavaScript Examples

JavaScript and TypeScript code example

Example of JavaScript

<script>
// Declare a variable and initialize it
// Global variable declaration
var Name="Apple";
// Function definition
function MyFunction() {    
    // Local variable declaration
    var num = 45;  
    // Display the value of Gloabal variable
    document.writeln(Name);
    // Display the value of local variable
    document.writeln("
" + num ); } // Function call MyFunction();

You can perform this example and learn JavaScript from Basic to Advanced with the help of tutorials here.

Example of TypeScript

class Name {
	first_name: string;
	last_name: string;

	constructor(fname: string, lname: string)
	{
		first_name = fname;
		last_name = lname;
	}
	getName(): string
	{
		var fullname: string = first_name + last_name;
		return fullname;
	}
}
var author_name: Name;

TypeScript vs JavaScript: Pros & Cons

Let’s see TypeScript and JavaScript’s pros & cons.

Pros & Cons of JavaScript

Pros Cons
Speed Client-Side Security
Simplicity Browser Support
Popularity Lack of Debugging Family
Interoperability Single Inheritance
Server Load Sluggish bitwise function
Rich Interface Stopped Rendering
Extended Functionality
Versatility
Less Overhead

Pros and Cons of TypeScript

Pros Cons
Highlights errors at compilation time Takes longer to compile
Supports Integration Higher learning c
Growth in popularity Suitable for just large and complex applications
Ideal for handling large applications Additional Built up step
Morden JavaScript features

TypeScript vs JavaScript: Key Differences

Typescript-vs-JavaScript-Key-Differences

Performance

TypeScript can minimize the errors during the runtime at the time of deployment, as it points out during the compile time. Whereas JavaScript is an interpreted language so it can point out errors during the runtime

Usage

The adaptability of JavaScript allows for a wide range of applications. Front-end developers use it to design websites’ visual aspects and user interfaces (together with HTML and CSS). Back-end developers use JavaScript to manage the numerous background processes and servers that keep applications operating. We’ll look at what JavaScript is used for in more detail in a later post. However, additional capabilities such as type annotation and a type system allow building more complicated larger-scale projects faster and easier.

Trend

In Google Trends, it shows the query trends for the last 12 months. The graphs which follow are set to summarize worldwide search results and cover the last 12 months. We can observe from this small sample of data that JavaScript has significantly more interest than TypeScript. JavaScript interest is at best stale, if not slightly dropping, whereas TypeScript interest is exploding.

Popularity

JavaScript is a fantastic language; if it weren’t, it wouldn’t have remained the most popular for so long. That does not, however, imply that it is flawless. In JavaScript, things can get chaotic and complex when dealing with larger projects. As a result, Microsoft created TypeScript.  As per Google Trends, we can see that the popularity of JavaScript, as well as TypeScript, is growing rapidly. However, google trends show the query trends, whereas the dice skill graph shows the skill required.

JavaScript popularity

JavaScript Popularity

TypeScript popularity

TypeScript Popularity

TypeScript Vs JavaScript

Now that we have seen both languages’ basic features and purpose, let’s take a summarized comparison.

Parameters TypeScript JavaScript
Define Powerful type system, including generics & JS features. Light-weight, interpreted, object-oriented language
DataBinding Uses concepts like types and interfaces No such concept is available with JavaScript
Supports There is support for ES3, ES4, ES5, and ES6There is support for ES3, ES4, ES5 and ES6. No support for compiling additional ES3, ES4, ES5, or ES6 features
EcoSystem The Ecosystem is quite powerful and intuitive.  Allows you to explore and create code without a build step
Npm Packages While using TypeScript, many npm packages either comes with a static type definition or an external one that is easy to install Using npm in JavaScript gives you exceptional control over the project dependence and contribution to the open-source-world
Learning Curve The stiff learning curve requires prior scripting knowledge Flexible and easy learning scripting language
Prototyping Allows prototyping Doesn’t allow prototyping
Community Doesn’t have large developers community Have a large developers community
Compilation Needs compilation Doesn’t need compilation
Annotation To use most of the TypeScript features, developers need to annotate their code constantly. No Annotation is required in JavaScript
Salaries The national average salary for a TypeScript Developer is $78,936 per year in the United States. The national average salary for a JavaScript Developer is $90,551 per year in the United States.
Tech Stack Angular
React.js
jQuery
CSS
HTML5
AngularJS
Node.JS
CSS
jQuery
jQuery UI
Client-Side / Server-Side Client-Side Client-side and Server-Side
File Extension .ts, .tsx .js
Type TypeScript is a strong type, object-oriented compile language. JavaScript is lightweight,
interpreted programming language
Complexity Medium Low
Design & Developed Brendan Eich at
Netscape
Communications
Corporation, Mozilla
Foundation, ECMA
International.
Designed and developed by Anders
Hejlsberg at Microsoft.
Flexibility Doesn’t support some Framework Works with almost all Framework
High/Lightweight It is heavily weighted.
an interpreted
Programming language.
It is a light weighted
It is specially designed for
development of large
application and trans
compile to JavaScript
Error detection Run-time Compile-time
Performance Better than JavaScript Slower than TypeScript
Preference to choose For large projects For small coding projects
Syntax <script>
document.write("Basic Print method in JavaScript");
</script>
class Student {
private name: string;
}
Version 4.4 ES6.
Influenced By C#, Java, JavaScript Java, Scheme, AWK, HyperTalk
Influenced AtScript, AssemblyScript TypeScript, CoffeeScript, AssemblyScript, ActionScript, Dart, Objective-J, Opa, Haxe
Stable release 4.2.4  9 April 2021; 4 months ago ECMAScript 2021 (12th edition) June 2021; 2 months ago
Preview Release 4.3 Beta 9 April 2021; 4 months ago ECMAScript 2022 22 July 2021; 29 days ago

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TypeScript Vs JavaScript: Which Is Better?

JavaScript and TypeScript are two popular languages for writing interactive and dynamic web applications. To summarize, we can conclude that if an experienced developer is working on relatively minor coding tasks, JavaScript is the way to go. However, if you have a development team with experience and understanding, TypeScript is the best alternative.

Saurabh Barot

Saurabh Barot is co-founder and Experienced Chief Technology Officer at Aglowid IT Solutions. His deep industry experience in Angular, React, Ruby on Rails, PHP, Mean Stack and just to name few, has helped the company reach to a new level. He believes that technology is all about exploring new possibilities. Whatever a mind can think (exception can't be ruled out), technology brings it into reality.

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