Laravel Routing: A Comprehensive Handbook

Quick Summary:

Laravel routing is an essential part of web application development, enabling the mapping of URLs to controllers or actions. It allows handling incoming HTTP requests and provides flexibility with multiple methods, route parameters, and groups. By defining well-structured routes, developers can develop dynamic applications with effective request handling and improved code maintainability.

In the vast world of web development, PHP has become the backbone of countless online applications, and among the plethora of PHP frameworks, Laravel shines as a leading star. Its unrivalled popularity and immense power stem from a standout feature – a robust routing system that propels Laravel to the forefront of web development choices.

Laravel’s routing system is one of its most significant strengths, making it a preferred choice for web developers when building PHP web applications. Let’s look into the key aspects that make Laravel’s routing system stand out:

Core Features of Laravel Routing

  • Elegant & Readable Syntax
  • Route Parameters & Wildcards
  • Named Routes and URL Generation
  • Route Groups and Middleware
  • Resourceful Routing
  • API and Web Route Separation
  • Route Caching for Performance

Laravel’s routing system is pivotal for efficiently managing incoming HTTP requests, offering web developers a seamless experience while adhering to best Laravel best practices. The framework’s routing prowess empowers applications to navigate the vast digital landscape with finesse, delivering high-performance responses and scalability. Whether crafting small-scale web applications or expansive APIs, Laravel’s routing capabilities emerge as a dynamic choice for PHP developers, steering web experiences through the ever-evolving virtual realms of the internet. As we embark on this blog post’s journey, let’s explore the internet’s very heartbeat – the powerful world of Laravel Routing.

What is Laravel Routing?

Laravel routing refers to mapping URLs to specific controllers and actions in a Laravel application.

What is Laravel Routing

The routes file defines the endpoints and URLs that your application responds to. For example, you can define a route like:

Route::get('/post/{id}', 'PostController@show');

This maps a GET request to /post/{id} to the show method on the PostController class.

The router matches the URL path and method to routes to determine which controller action should handle the request.

Why Routing is important in Laravel?

Laravel’s Routing is pivotal, steering HTTP requests toward designated controllers or actions. This orchestrates coding structure, optimizes resource utilization, and elevates user experiences by articulating URLs to specific functions.

Why Routing is important in Laravel

Defining Endpoints and URLs

Routes in a Laravel app mark where you can go (endpoints/URLs) and what you can do there (functionalities/actions). They connect these two, so you get the right stuff when you click or type.

Separation of Logic

Routes helps programmers divide the tasks among the controllers, which keeps each controller focused and prevents them from getting too bulky. This helps in mainting the codebase neat.

Handling Requests

Getting routing right is crucial for dealing with all the requests that come into the application. Each request goes through the router to find the ideal controller or closure.

RESTful Routing

RESTful Routing arranges apps and gives a clear plan for making routes. This makes the app easier to manage and keep working smoothly

Route Model Binding

Route model binding lets you put models right into routes, making these less complicated and fetching model info easier.


Adding middleware to routes helps developers deal with different tasks such as checking who’s logging in, giving permissions, controlling how often things happen, and making sure data is correct.

Caching and Rate Limiting

By employing caching and rate limiting on routes, your application’s security is fortified, and its performance gets a boost. This happens as repetitive tasks are minimized, ensuring efficient processing and a more secure online experience.

Route Prefixes

Route prefixes play a pivotal role in globalizing and adapting your app. They streamline the process of handling diverse language versions, simplifying the management of various localized iterations of your application.

Code Splitting

Routes facilicate breaking down code into smaller, speacialized sections, boosting the app’s manageability and scalability. This approach enhances the ease of maintainace and sets the stage for smooth expansion in the digital world.

Named Routes

When you give names to the routes streamlines the creation of web addresses all across your app, minimizing the risk of mistakes and adding to the clarity of your code.

Route Groups

In the ever-expanding landscape of routes within substantial applications, route groups become the compass, guiding the organization of interconnected routes. This smart approach ensures seamless navigation amid a web of functionalities.

Collectively, these insights offer a deep appreciation for the indispensable role of Laravel routing in constructing resilient, easily maintainable, and high-performing web applications, underpinning the digital architecture with reliability and finesse.

Types of Laravel Routing

Laravel offers versatile routing types, they are as follows:

Types of Laravel Routing

Basic Routing

The most fundamental Laravel routes receive a URI and a Clouser, giving users a very straightforward and expressive way to define routes & behavior without needing sophisticated routing configuration files:

use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Route;
Route::get('/greeting', function () {
    return 'Hello World';

Source: Laravel Documentation

Your route files, which can be found in the routes directory, define every Laravel route. Your application’s App\Providers\RouteServiceProvider loads these files for you automatically. You can define routes for your web interface in the routes/web.php file. These routes belong to the web middleware group, which offers functions like CSRF protection and session state. Stateless routes that belong to the API middleware group are found in routes/api.php.

You will usually start by defining routes in your routes/web.php file for most apps. By entering the URL of the defined Route in your browser, you can access the routes described in routes/web.php. By going to in your browser, you could, for instance, visit the following path:

use App\Http\Controllers\UserController;
Route::get('/user', [UserController::class, 'index']);

Basic Routing also includes the default route files, Available Router methods, Dependency Injection, and CSRF Protection. To read more about these you can head to the official Laravel Documentation.

Basic Routing

Redirect Routes

The Route::redirect method can be used when defining a route directing traffic to another URI. Because of the practical shortcut offered by this technique, you can easily do a simple redirect without having to construct a whole route or controller.

Route::redirect('/here', '/there');

A 302 status code is what Route::redirect typically returns. The third parameter is an optional choice that lets you alter the status code:

Route::redirect('/here', '/there', 301);

Or you can also use the permanentRedirect method (Route::permanentRedirect) to return a 301 status code.

Route::permanentRedirect('/here', '/there');

Note: Destination and status are Laravel-reserved parameters that cannot be utilized when using route parameters in redirect routes.

View Routes

Use the Route::view method if you simply need to return the view. Similar to the redirect method, this method offers a short-cut so you do not need to build a whole route or controller. The first argument for the view method is a URI, and the second argument is the name of the view. Additionally, as a third argument that is optional, you can specify an array of data to pass to the view:

Route::view('/welcome', 'welcome');
Route::view('/welcome', 'welcome', ['name' => 'Alex']);

Note: When using view routes, the following parameters are reserved by Laravel. That means you cannot use view, data, status, and headers as these parameters.

The Route List

The Route: list is the artisan command that can quickly give you a summary of all the routes that your application has defined:

php artisan route:list

By using the -v option in front of the command, you may instruct Laravel to show the route middleware. The result of Route: list will not by default show the route middleware that is connected to each Route. Take a look at the command below.

php artisan route:list -v

using this parameter, you can instruct Laravel to only show routes that begin with the given URI:

php artisan route:list --path=api

Apart, from this, by providing the –except-vendor option when executing the Route: list command, you can instruct Laravel to hide any routes that are defined by the third-party packages.

php artisan route:list --except-vendor

The same thing can be done if you only want to see the third-party packages you can follow the command given below:

Php artisan route:list --only-vendor

Route Parameters

The router parameter defines the routes using parameters such as /user/{id} allows accepting input in the URL. Then these parameters get passed to route handlers. Route parameters include:

Route Parameters

Required Parameters

You might occasionally need to catch URI fragments within your Route. For instance, you might need to extract the ID of a user from the URL. This can be accomplished by setting route parameters.

Route::get('/user/{id}', function (string $id) {
    return 'User '.$id;

You can define number of route parameters in your Route

Route::get('/posts/{post}/comments/{comment}', function (string $postId, string $commentId) {
    // ...

But there are several things that you need to keep in mind while using number of parameters:

  • Route parameters should only contain letters of the alphabet and are always enclosed in braces {}
  • Route parameter names may also contain underscores (_)
  • Route parameters are injected into rotue callbacks/controllers based on their order – the name of the route callback/controller arguments do not matter

In addition, you should include your route parameters after any dependencies if you want the Laravel service container to inject those dependencies into your Route’s callback automatically:

use Illuminate\Http\Request;
Route::get('/user/{id}', function (Request $request, string $id) {
    return 'User '.$id;

Optional Parameters

A route parameter that might not always be present in the URI may occasionally need to be specified. The parameter name can be changed by adding a question mark (?) after it. Don’t forget to set a default value for the corresponding route variable:

Route::get('/user/{name?}', function (string $name = null) {
    return $name;
Route::get('/user/{name?}', function (string $name = 'Christian') {
    return $name;

Regular Expression Constraints

Using a route instance’s where method, you can restrict the format of your route arguments. The parameter name and a regular expression specifying the parameter’s constraints are both accepted by the where method:

Route::get('/user/{name}', function (string $name) {
    // ...
})->where('name', '[A-Za-z]+');
Route::get('/user/{id}', function (string $id) {
    // ...
})->where('id', '[0-9]+');
Route::get('/user/{id}/{name}', function (string $id, string $name) {
    // ...
})->where(['id' => '[0-9]+', 'name' => '[a-z]+']);

You can get more information on the Regular Expression Constraints and how they play a part in Laravel Performance Optimization by referring to the official Laravel Documentation.

Named parameters

For specialized routes, named routes make it simple to generate URLs or redirects. By adding the name method to the route definition, you can give a name to a route:

Route::get('/user/profile', function () {
    // ...

For controller activities, you can define route names:

    [UserProfileController::class, 'show']

Note: Route names must always be distinct.

For more detailed information visit the Official Documentation.

Are you looking to hire Laravel Developers?

Unleash the boundless potential of your Laravel projects with our elite team of expert Laravel developers @ Aglowid.


Route Groups

Without describing those qualities on each Route, route groups let you share route attributes like middleware across many different routes.

Nested groups make an intelligent effort to “merge” their parent group’s traits with their own. Where conditions and middleware are combined, names and prefixes are added. Slashes and namespace delimiters are automatically added to URI prefixes when necessary.

Route Groups


For applying middleware to all routes within a grouped section, utilize the middleware function before outlining the group. The sequence of middleware execution follows the order established within the array.

Route::middleware(['first', 'second'])->group(function () {
    Route::get('/', function () {
        // Uses first & second middleware...
    Route::get('/user/profile', function () {
        // Uses first & second middleware...


When a set of routes collectively use a shared controller, you can employ the controller approach to establish the shared controller for all routes within the group. Subsequently, while defining the routes, you merely need to specify the controller method they refer to:

use App\Http\Controllers\OrderController;
Route::controller(OrderController::class)->group(function () {
    Route::get('/orders/{id}', 'show');
    Route::post('/orders', 'store');

Utilizing route groups extends to managing subdomain routing as well. Route parameters can be assigned to subdomains in a manner similar to route URIs, enabling you to capture a segment of the subdomain for utilization within your Route or controller. This subdomain allocation can be set by employing the domain function prior to outlining the group.

Route::domain('{account}')->group(function () {
    Route::get('user/{id}', function (string $account, string $id) {
        // ...

Note: To guarantee the accessibility of your subdomain routes, it’s advisable to enlist the subdomain routes before registering the root domain routes. Doing so prevents scenarios where root domain routes might overwrite subdomain routes sharing the same URI path.

Route Prefixes

You have the option to employ the prefix technique to add a specified URI as a prefix to every Route within the grouped section. As an illustration, you might consider prefixing all the route URIs within the group with “admin”.

Route::prefix('admin')->group(function () {
    Route::get('/users', function () {
        // Matches The "/admin/users" URL

Route Name Prefixes

You can utilize the name approach to attach a designated string as a prefix to each route name within the grouped section. For instance, you might decide to add the “admin” prefix to the names of all routes in the group. It’s important to note that the provided string is directly added to the route name as specified, therefore ensure to include the trailing “.” character within the prefix.

Route::name('admin.')->group(function () {
    Route::get('/users', function () {
        //Route assigned name "admin.users"...

Route Model Binding

Route Model Binding is a functionality in Laravel, a renowned PHP web framework, which streamlines the process of injecting model instances into route closures or controller methods. This streamlines the task of handling model instances instead of the manual process of fetching them from the database rooted in route parameters.

There are two primary tatics within the Route Model Binding: Implicit Binding & Explicit Binding. Let’s take a look at them in detail.

Route Model Binding

Implicit Binding

The model object is automatically resolved via implicit binding using the name and value of the route parameter. Laravel examines the name of the route parameter before retrieving the relevant database record to retrieve a model instance. When you regularly identify your route parameters after the matching model’s identification, Implicit Binding is especially helpful.

Here is how Implicit Binding works :

First, you need to identify the Route by defining a route parameter with the model’s identifier:
Route::get('users/{user}', 'UserController@show');

Within the controller function, the act of specifying the model using a type hint within the method’s declaration exists. Subsequently, Laravel will autonomously retrieve the pertinent model instance, contingent on the value of the route parameter.

public function show(User $user) {
    // $user is already a resolved model instance
    return view('', ['user' = > $user]);

Explicit Binding

In Explicit Binding, you’re tasked with outlining the connection that bridges route parameters and model instances, executed through the router service. This shows you a heightened level of influence over how models converge with route parameters. Explicit Binding proves its value when the objective involves entwining models through criteria that extend beyond the conventional model identifier.

First, you need to define the route parameter and the model binding in the ‘RouteServiceProvider’ class’s ‘boot’ method.

public function boot() {
    Route::model('user', User::class); // Map 'user' parameter to User model

­Next, you need to define the role with the parameter, you’ve bound in the‘ RouteServiceProvider’ :

Route::get('users/{user}', 'UserController@show');

Include the bound model’s method signature in the controller method, and Laravel will fetch and inject it for you:

public function show(User $user) {
    // $user is the resolved model instance
    return view('', ['user' => $user]);

Apart from these there are several things that implicit and explicit binding covers. To get more information on Route Model Binding, refer to the official Laravel Documentation.

Fallback Routes

Using the Route::fallback function, you can establish a route that will be activated in scenarios where no other route corresponds to the incoming request. Ordinarily, unattended requests are inherently channeled towards a “404” page via your application’s error-handling mechanism. Nonetheless, given that the fallback route is usually specified within your routes/web.php script, all middleware belonging to the web middleware grouping will be relevant to the Route. You hold the liberty to introduce extra middleware to this particular Route as deemed necessary.

Route::fallback(function () {
    // ...

Note: The backup Route must be your application’s final registration. Route Cache

Route Caching

While deploying your application to a production environment, leveraging Laravel’s route caching functionality is advisable. Employing the route cache can significantly reduce the time required to enlist all the routes within your application. To generate this route cache, simply initiate the Route:cache Artisan command.

php artisan route:cache

Once this command is executed, each incoming request will access your stored routes file. Keep in mind, if you introduce any novel routes, you’ll need to create a new cache for routes. This highlights the necessity of executing the Route:cache command solely during the project’s deployment phase.

You can resort to the Route:clear command to eliminate the route cache.
php artisan route: clear

Now that we have covered the types of Laravel routing let’s see some of the benefits and challenges related to Laravel Routing.

Pros & Cons of Laravel Routing

Embark on a journey through the merits and pitfalls of Laravel routing. Unveil its strengths for optimal web apps and navigate the challenges for informed development decisions.

Pros & Cons Laravel Routing

Pros of Laravel Routing

  • Structured Navigation: Well-organized approach to endpoint management.
  • Adaptable URLs: Route parameters and wildcards for flexible URLs.
  • Streamlined API Development: Simplifies CRUD-based API creation.
  • Controlled Middleware: Precise handling of requests and authentication.
  • Efficient Data Retrieval: Reduced complexity with route model binding.
  • Enhanced Readability: Improved URL precision and code clarity.
  • Scalable Grouping: Organized Routing for expanding applications.
  • Global Access: Multi-language support via route prefixes.
  • Accelerated Performance: Faster responses through cached Routing.

Cons of Laravel Routing

  • Initial Learning Curve: Complexity may challenge newcomers.
  • Scale Discrepancy: Overhead for smaller applications.
  • Behaviour Sensitivity: Route definition order affects functionality.
  • Middleware Impact: Performace slowdown with multiple middleware.
  • Organizational Hurdles: Maintainance complexity due to improper grouping.
  • Caching Caveats: Cache issues upon route changes.
  • Naming Complexity: It can be challenging to maintain unique route names
  • Version Changes: Potential impact on Routing with updates

Cutting Costs but
NOT Cutting Quality

that’s how we roll! 🚀

Hire Web Developers

Wrapping Up!

In the realm of web development, Laravel routing serves as an essential navigator, sterring the users through application landscape. Unvelling its benefits, spanning dynamic URLs to polished code, empowers creators to forge streamlined and expansible digital domains. Commanding Laravel routing unlocks portals to impeccable web encounters, enriching your developmental journey.


In programming, a router is a key element of the front controller pattern. It directs incoming requests to a handler, which then manages specific functionalities, helping to eliminate code repetition and enhance session management, authorization, authentication, and templating tasks.

So, the benefits of using Routing in PHP are -

✦ Get rid of messy URLs with proper URL mapping.

✦ Separation of concerns in the form of separating routes definitions and controllers that handle the logic.

✦ Defining how the HTTP incoming requests need to be processed.

✦ Routing provides an additional security layer by preventing direct access to internal scripts and ensuring all requests enter through a controlled entry point.

The main purpose of routing is to determine how the incoming requests to a web application should be processed and which code or functionality should be responsible for handling them. They are used for routing maps URLs to specific actions/controllers, leading to a cleaner code architecture, improving content handling and enhancing the overall web app’s functionality.

Normal routing and reverse routing go together in Laravel and complement each other to provide a complete routing system.

The purpose of normal routing (forward routing) is the process of defining how incoming HTTP requests can be mapped to specific actions or controllers in your app. Normal routing helps determine how requests should be handled when users visit specific URLs in your application.

The purpose of reverse routing is the process of generating URLs for defined and named routes based on any needed route parameters. It is mainly used for simplifying the process of linking and redirecting.
Need Consultation?

Put down your query here...

    Saurabh Barot

    Saurabh Barot, the CTO of Aglowid IT Solutions, leads a team of 50+ IT experts across various domains. He excels in web, mobile, IoT, AI/ML, and emerging tech. Saurabh's technical prowess is underscored by his contributions to Agile, Scrum, and Sprint-based milestones. His guidance as a CTO ensures remote teams achieve project success with precision and technical excellence.

    Related Posts